- ENDEMIC DISEASE. The constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given geographic area or population group; may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease within such area or group.
- EPIDEMIC. The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a given area or among a specific group of people over a particular period of time.
- PANDEMIC. An epidemic occurring over a very wide area (several countries or continents) and usually affecting a large proportion of the population.
- OUTBREAK. Synonymous with epidemic. Sometimes the preferred word, as it may escape sensationalism associated with the word epidemic. Alternatively, a localized as opposed to generalized epidemic.
- EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRIAD. The traditional model of infectious disease causation. Includes three components: an external agent, a susceptible host, and an environment that brings the host and agent together, so that disease occurs.
- EPIDEMIOLOGY. The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS
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A framework developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton that suggests four perspectives of performance measurement to provide a comprehensive view of an organisation. These are service user perspective, internal management perspective, continuous improvement perspective and financial perspective.
A point of reference or standard by which something can be measured
Casemix is an internationally recognised system of measuring clinical activity incorporating the age, gender and health status of the population served by an organisation with a view to objective determination of hospital reimbursement.
Data are numbers, symbols, words, images, graphics that have yet to be organised or analysed
A descriptive list of names (also called representations or displays), definitions, and attributes of data elements to be collected in an information system or database.
A unit of data for which the definition, identification, representation, and permissible values are
DOMAINS OF QUALITY:
Are those definable, preferably measurable and actionable, attributes of the system that are related to its functioning to maintain, restore or improve health
As per gartner, Descriptive Analytics is the examination of data or content, usually manually performed, to answer the question “What happened?” (or What is happening?), characterized by traditional business intelligence (BI) and visualizations such as pie charts, bar charts, line graphs, tables, or generated narratives.
As per gartner, Predictive analytics describes any approach to data mining with four attributes:
1. An emphasis on prediction (rather than description, classification or clustering)
2. Rapid analysis measured in hours or days (rather than the stereotypical months of traditional data mining)
3. An emphasis on the business relevance of the resulting insights (no ivory tower analyses)
4. (increasingly) An emphasis on ease of use, thus making the tools accessible to business users.
As per Gartner, Prescriptive Analytics is a form of advanced analytics which examines data or content to answer the question “What should be done?” or “What can we do to make _______ happen?”, and is characterized by techniques such as graph analysis, simulation, complex event processing, neural networks, recommendation engines, heuristics, and machine learning.
Health Information is defined as information, recorded in any form or medium, which is created or communicated by an organisation or individual relating to the past, present or future, physical or mental health or social care of an individual or cohort. It also includes information relating to the management of the health and social care system
KPI SELECTION CRITERIA
Data that defines and describes other data
MINIMUM DATA SET:
The minimum set of data elements that are required to be collected for a specific purpose
The specifications that define the subset of data items in the denominator that meet the indicator criteria.
KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS:
Performance Indicators are specific and measurable elements of practice that can be used to assess quality of care. Indicators are quantitative measures of structures, processes or outcomes that may be correlated with the quality of care delivered by the healthcare system.
Performance indicators that monitor the activities carried out in the assessment/diagnosis and treatment of service users.
Performance indicators that monitor the desired states resulting from care processes, which may include reduction in morbidity and mortality, and improvement in the quality of life.
Reliability is the consistency of your measurement, or the degree to which an instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with the same subjects.
Performance indicators that monitor the attributes of the health system that contribute to its ability to meet the healthcare needs of the population.
The Delphi Technique:
The Delphi technique is a facilitated structured process whereby a panel of experts complete questionnaires (see Appendix 3 for example) remotely and, through feedback and scoring over a number of rounds where some KPIs are discarded, a consensus is achieved on a final set of KPIs. The panel need not ever meet face-to-face and each individual’s feedback is provided anonymously to the panel, which eliminates the possibility of undue influence by dominant personalities within the panel.
The RAND appropriateness method:
The RAND appropriateness method combines scientific evidence with expert
opinion by facilitating experts to rate, discuss and re-rate KPIs. Unlike the Delphi technique the expert panel meet face-to-face to discuss possible KPIs and are given a copy of the scientific literature in support of the KPIs so that they can ground their opinion on evidence-based literature
Validity of indicators refers to whether performance indicators are measuring what they are supposed to measure. e are constantly looking for Healthcare Informatics & Digital Health Experts to share their experiences by writing articles on Technology benefiting in the delivery of Healthcare Services.
Activity Diagram A UML Diagram that shows a workflow process, particularly focused on communication and the actors involved in that communication. Introduced as part of the HDF as part of the requirements analysis for HL7 standrads.
ADT – Admissions, Discharge & Transfer
ANSI American National Standards Institute. Founded in 1918, ANSI itself does not develop standards. ANSI’s roles include serving as the coordinator for U.S. voluntary standards efforts, acting as the approval body to recognize documents developed by other national organizations as American National Standards, acting as the U.S. representative in international and regional standards efforts, and serving as a clearinghouse for national and international standards development information.
Attribute Type The last part of an attribute name (suffix). Attribute type suffixes are rough classifiers for the meaning of the attribute. See also Data Type for contrast.
Authenticated Document A status in which a document or entry has been signed manually or electronically by one or more individuals who attest to its accuracy. No explicit determination is made that the assigned individual has performed the authentication. While the standard allows multiple instances of authentication, it would be typical to have a single instance of authentication, usually by the assigned individual.
Auxiliary Application An auxiliary application neither exerts control over, nor requests changes to a schedule. It is only concerned with gathering information about a particular schedule. It can be considered an “interested third- party,” in that it is interested in any changes to a particular schedule, but has no interest in changing it or controlling it in any way. It may gather information passively or actively. An auxiliary application passively collects information by receiving unsolicited updates from a filler application.
Arden Syntax an approach to specifying medical knowledge and clinical decision support rules in a form that is independent of any EHR and thus sharable across hospitals
ARRA (American Recovery and Reconstruction Act) the Obama administration’s 2009 economic stimulus bill
Blue Button an ASCII text based standard for heath information sharing first introduced by the Veteran’s Administration to facilitate access to records stored in VistA by their patients. The newer Blue Button + format provides both human and machine readable formats.
A biosensor is an analytical device which converts a biological response into an electrical signal and wearables are on or in body accessories that enhance user experience. Biosensing wearables can monitor changes in physiology and the external environment. They are easy to use and provide useful, real-time information by allowing continuous physiological monitoring in a wide range of wearable forms.
CCD (Continuity of Care Document) an XML-based patient summary based on the CDA architecture
CCOW (Clinical Context Object Workshop) an HL7 standard for synchronizing and coordinating applications to automatically follow the patient, user (and other) contexts to allow the clinical user’s experience to resemble interacting with a single system, when they are using multiple, independent applications from many different systems
CCR (Continuity of Care Record) an XML-based patient summary format that preceded CDA
CCDA (Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture) the second revision of HL7’s CDA architecture that attempts to introduce more standard templates to facilitate information sharing (a mandate of Meaningful Use 2)
CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) an XML-based markup standard intended to specify the encoding, structure and semantics of clinical documents
CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) the federal agency focused on disease in the community.
CA (Certificate Authority) an entity that digitally signs certificate requests and issues X.509 digital certificates that link a public key to attributes of its owner
CIMI (Clinical Information Modeling Initiative) an independent collaboration of major health providers improve the interoperability of healthcare information systems through shared and implementable clinical information models
CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) the component of the Department of Health and Human Services that administers the Medicare and Medicaid programs
CommonWell Alliance a group of major health IT companies that is working to achieve interoperability among their respective software products and services
Complete EHR an EHR software product that, by itself, is capable of meeting the requirements of certification and Meaningful Use
CONNECT ONC supported open source software for managing the centralized model of health information exchange
CPT (Current Procedural Terminology) the American Medical Association’s standard for coding medical procedures
De-identified Patient Health Information PHI from which all data elements that could allow the data to be traced back to the patient have been removed
DIRECT a set of ONC supported standards for secure exchange of health information using email
DNS (Domain Name System) the naming system for computers, services, or any resource connected to the Internet (or a private network). Among other things, it translates domain names (e.g. eBay.com) to the numerical IP addresses needed to locate Internet connected resources.
The transfer of health resources and healthcare by electronic means, encompassing three main areas:
• the delivery of health information, for health professionals and health consumers, through the Internet and telecommunications
• using the power of IT and e-commerce to improve public health services, e.g. through the education and training of health workers
• the use of e-commerce and e-business practices in health systems management
Electronic health records (EHR)
A set of records that clinicians control to co-ordinate their team work within and between healthcare teams.
Electronic patient health records (EPR)
A set of records that the patient controls and which allows the patient to work with their clinical team across institutional boundaries.
EDI/X12 a format for electronic messaging that utilizes cryptic but compact notation primarily to support computer-to-computer commercial information exchange
eHealth Exchange a set of standards, services and policies that enable secure nationwide, Internet-based health information exchange using CONNECT or one of the commercial HIE products that support eHealth Exchange
EHR (Electronic Health Record) a stakeholder wide electronic record of a patient’s complete health situation
EHR Certification a set of technical requirements developed by ONC that, if met, quality an EHR to be used by an Eligible Professional to achieve Meaningful Use
Eligible Professionals (Medicaid) health providers who are eligible for Medicaid Meaningful Use payments: doctors of medicine, osteopathy, dental surgery, dental medicine, nurse practitioners, nurse certified nurse-midwifes, and physician assistants who working in a Federally Qualified Health Center or Rural Health Clinic that is led by a physician assistant
Eligible Professionals (Medicare) health providers who are eligible for Medicare Meaningful Use payments: doctors of medicine, osteopathy, dental surgery, dental medicine, podiatry, optometry and chiropractic
EMPI an enterprise master patient index
EMR (Electronic Medical Record) an electronic record used by a licensed professional care provider
GELLO a programming language intended for use as a standard query and expression language for clinical decision support. Now compatible with the HL7 version 3.0 Reference Information Model (RIM).
HDF (HL7 Development Framework) the framework used by HL7 to produce specifications for data, messaging process and other standards
Health System a network of providers that are affiliated for the more integrated delivery of care
Healtheway an ONC supported public-private partnership to promote nationwide health information exchange via the eHealth Exchange
HIE (Health Information Exchange) the sharing of digital health information by the various stakeholders involved, including the patient
HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) describes itself as a “a global, cause-based, not-for-profit organization focused on better health through information technology (IT)”
HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996) legislation intended to secure health insurance for employees changing jobs and simplify administration with electronic transactions. It also defines the rules concerning patient privacy and security for PHI
HISP (Health ISP) a component of Direct that provides a provider directory, secure email addresses and public-key infrastructure (PKI)
HIT (Health Information Technology) the set of tools needed to facilitate electronic documentation and management of healthcare delivery
HITSP (Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel) a public/private partnership to promote interoperability through standards
HL7 (Health Level 7) a not-for-profit global organization to establish standards for interoperability
HMO (Health Maintenance Organization) an organization that provides managed healthcare on a prepaid basis. Employers with 25 or more employees must offer federally certified HMO options if they offer traditional healthcare options
hQuery an ONC funded, open source effort to develop a generalized set of distributed queries across diverse EHRs for purposes such as clinical research
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) a query-response protocol used to transfer information between web browsers and connected servers. HTTPS is the secure version.
ICD (International Classification of Disease) the World Health Organization’s almost universally used standard codes for diagnoses. The current version is ICD-10 and it was adopted in the US on October 1, 2015 — well after most other advanced countries had moved to it.
IHTSDO (International Health Terminology Standard Development Organisation) the multinational organization that maintains SNOMED
IHIP Integrated Health Information Platform. An Integrated Health Information Platform (IHIP) is being setup by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). The primary objective of IHIP is to enable the creation of standards compliant Electronic Health Records (EHRs) of the citizens on a pan-India basis along with the integration and interoperability of the EHRs through a comprehensive Health Information Exchange (HIE) as part of this centralized accessible platform.
IP Address a 32 bit (the standard is changing to 128 bit to accommodate Internet growth) number assigned to each device in an Internet Protocol network and that indicates where it is in that network.
I2b2 (Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside) a scalable query framework for exploration of clinical and genomic data for research to design targeted therapies for individual patients with diseases having genetic origins
Interoperability the ability of diverse information systems to seamlessly share data and coordinate on tasks involving multiple systems.
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) is a protocol for accessing (including searching) and maintaining distributed directory information services (such as an email directory) over an IP network.
LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) the Regenstrief Institute’s standard for laboratory and clinical observations
Meaningful Use a set of usage requirements defined in three stages by ONC under which eligible professionals are paid for adopting a certified EHR
MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) the International Conference on Harmonisation’s classification of adverse event information associated with the use of biopharmaceuticals and other medical products
Medicaid the joint federal/state program to provide healthcare services to poor and some disabled US citizens
Medicare the federally operated program to provide healthcare services to US citizens over the age of 65
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) the Internet standard for the format of email attachments used in Direct. S/MIME is the secure version.
MLM (Medical Logic Module) the basic unit in the Arden Syntax that contains sufficient medical knowledge and rules to make one clinical decision.
Modular EHR a software component that delivers at least one of the key services required of a Certified EHR
Moodle (Modular Object-Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) is one of the most popular open source Course Management Systems (CMS). It is written in PHP programming language and distributed under the GNU General Public License. Moodle was created by Martin Dougiama to help educators to create online courses with a focus on interaction and collaborative construction of content, and it is in continual evolution.
Mobile health (mHealth)
Medical and public health practice supported by mobile devices (mobile phones, smart phones and tablets), patient monitoring devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and other wireless devices. Utilising a mobile phone’s core voice and short messaging service (SMS) and more complex functionalities and applications including general packet radio service (GPRS), third and fourth generation mobile telecommunications (3G and 4G systems), global positioning system (GPS), and Bluetooth technology.
Mobile applications (apps)
A software application that can run on a mobile platform (i.e. a handheld commercial off-theshelf computing platform, with or without wireless connectivity) or a web-based software application that is tailored to a mobile platform but is executed on a server.
MPI (Master Patient Index) software to provide correct matching of patients across multiple software systems, typically within a health enterprise
MUMPS (Massachusetts General Utility Multi-Programming System) an integrated programming language and file management system designed in the late 1960’s for medical data processing that is the basis for some of the most widely installed enterprise health information systems
NDC (National Drug Codes) the Food and Drug Administration’s numbering system for all medications commercially available in the US
ONC (Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology) the agency created in 2004 within the Department of Health and Human Services to promote the deployment of HIT in the US
Online patient communities
Online discussion groups allowing patients to learn from peers and professionals including how to understand their own data. They provide access to relevant, timely information and support others with similar conditions.
Outcomes-based Contract an approach to pay for healthcare that rewards physician performance against certain defined quality metrics when combined with a lower than predicted cost of care
Patients and clinicians work together to improve the patient’s health – in which patients have equal access to all data, are case managers of their own illness and co-producers of their own health. Primary care professionals become gateways not gatekeepers.
A website that gives patients access to the data and information in their electronic health record. Can also be used to book appointments and order repeat prescriptions.
Personal health records (PHRs)
P4P (Pay for Performance) an approach to pay for healthcare that rewards physician performance against certain defined quality metrics
PCMH (Patient-Centered Medical Home) a team based healthcare delivery model often particularly focused on the management of chronic disease
PCP (Primary Care Physician) the generalist in a patient’s care team who assumes overall responsibility for all their health issues and often the gatekeeper who must generate referrals to specialists
PHI (Protected Health Information) any health or health related information that can be related back to a specific patient. PHI is subject to HIPAA regulations.
PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) a widely used system for protection of documents, messages and other data that rests on a pair of public and private keys to allow for a variety of use cases
Private Key the protected (known only to its owner) part of the special pair of numbers used to encrypt documents using PKI
Provider health professionals including physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians’ assistants that are engaged in direct patient care
Public Key the public part of the special pair of numbers used to encrypt documents using PKI
RA (Registration Authority) an entity that collects information for the purpose of verifying the identity of an individual or organization and produces a certificate request
Synthetic Health Data facsimile clinical data created by a software system to realistically resemble actual patient data
Templates (CDA) the reusable basic XML-based building blocks of a CDA document that can represent the entire document, its sections or the data entries within a section
Read Codes a hierarchical clinical terminology system used in General Practice in the United Kingdom
Resource Description Framework (RDF) a method for describing or modeling of information on the web using subject-predicate-object expressions (triples) in the form of subject-predicate-object expressions that could be used to represent health ontologies (SNOMED, ICD-1)
RIM (Reference Information Model) a pictorial representation of the HL7 clinical data (domains) that illustrates the life cycle of an HL7 message or groups of related messages
Semantic web the proposed next generation of web in which technologies like RDF would create a “web of data” in which browsers (and other tools) could “understand” the content of web pages
SMTP (Simplified Mail Transport Protocol) the Internet standard for email used by Direct. The secure version is S/SMTP
SNOMED (Standard Nomenclature of Medicine) a comprehensive, hierarchical healthcare terminology system.
SNOMED CT (Standard Nomenclature of Medicine) SNOMED subset for the electronic health record. SNOMED CT: Is the most comprehensive, multilingual clinical healthcare terminology in the world. Is a resource with comprehensive, scientifically validated clinical content. Enables consistent, processable representation of clinical content in electronic health records. Is mapped to other international standards. Is already used in more than fifty countries
When implemented in software applications, SNOMED CT can be used to represent clinically relevant information consistently, reliably and comprehensively as an integral part of producing electronic health information.
Technology enabled Care (TEC)
The use of technology to enhance the quality and cost-effectiveness of care and support and improve outcomes for individuals through the application of technology (including, but not limited to, the use of telecare, telehealth, and mobile health and wellbeing) as an integral part of the care and support process.
The continuous, automatic and remote monitoring of activity/lifestyle changes over time, providing real time alerts or calls for help in emergencies and helping to manage the risks associated with independent living, enabling people to live independently for longer, particularly those who require a combination of health and social care.
Telehealth and Telehealth
Telehealth involves the consistent and accurate remote monitoring and management of a health condition including vital signs monitoring. It involves the exchange of information between patient and HCPs to identify trends or changes in the patient’s condition, helping to avoid hospital admissions, support early discharge and improve self-care. Telehealth helps educate, train and support people to self-care.
Telemedicine uses telecommunication and electronic information technologies to provide clinical healthcare at a distance, improving access to medical services and specialists. It permits communications between patient and medical staff as well the transmission of medical, imaging and health informatics data from one site to another. New forms of telemedicine include videotelephony, advanced diagnostics and telemedical devices to support home care.
ToC (Transition of Care Initiative) the effort to develop a standard electronic clinical summary for transitions of care from one venue to another
TPO HIPAA exception for providers, insurance companies and other health-care entities to exchange information necessary for Treatment, Payment or Operations of healthcare businesses
VDT (View, Download, Transmit) a requirement of Meaningful Use Stage 2 that patients view, download or transmit their health information
VistA (Veterans Health Information Systems and Technology Architecture) the Veteran’s Administration’s system wide, MUMPS based health information infrastructure
X.509 digital certificate the technical name for an electronic document issued by a CA that uses a digital signature to bind a public key with an identity based on information from an RA
XDR (External Data Representation) an operating system and transport method agnostic mechanism for exchanging data that is encoded/decoded into/from the XDR format.
XDM (IHE Cross Enterprise Document Media Interchange) a standard mechanism for including both documents and meta-data in zip format using agreed upon conventions for directory structure and location of files.
XDS (Cross-Enterprise Document Sharing) the use of federated document repositories and a document registry to create a longitudinal record of information about a patient
XML (Xtensible Markup Language) a widely used standard for machine and human readable electronic documents and the language used to define CDA templates
XMPI a cross organizational master patient index capable of dealing with many unaffiliated hospitals and health systems
LMIS – laboratory information management system
RIS – Radiology Information System
PACS – Picture Archival and Communications System
DICOM – Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine
: Glossary of Terms on HL7:
: Connected health: How digital technology is transforming health and social care:
AI & Machine Learning Terms
Artificial intelligence The development of computers capable of tasks that typically require human intelligence. A machine’s ability to make decisions and perform tasks that simulate human intelligence and behavior.
Machine learning Using example data or experience to refine how computers make predictions or perform a task. A facet of AI that focuses on algorithms, allowing machines to learn without being programmed and change when exposed to new data.
Deep learning A machine learning technique in which data is filtered through self-adjusting networks of math loosely inspired by neurons in the brain. The ability for machines to autonomously mimic human thought patterns through artificial neural networks composed of cascading layers of information.
Supervised learning Showing software labeled example data, such as photographs, to teach a computer what to do. A type of machine learning in which output datasets train the machine to generate the desired algorithms, like a teacher supervising a student; more common than unsupervised learning.
Unsupervised learning Learning without annotated examples, just from experience of data or the world—trivial for humans but not generally practical for machines. Yet. A type of machine learning algorithm used to draw inferences from datasets consisting of input data without labeled responses. The most common unsupervised learning method is cluster analysis.
Reinforcement learning Software that experiments with different actions to figure out how to maximize a virtual reward, such as scoring points in a game.
Artificial general intelligence As yet nonexistent software that displays a humanlike ability to adapt to different environments and tasks, and transfer knowledge between them.
Large-scale Machine Learning Design of learning algorithms, as well as scaling existing algorithms, to work with extremely large data sets.
Deep Learning Model composed of inputs such as image or audio and several hidden layers of sub-models that serve as input for the next layer and ultimately an output or activation function.
Natural Language Processing (NLP) Algorithms that process human language input and convert it into understandable representations. The ability for a program to recognize human communication as it is meant to be understood.
Collaborative Systems Models and algorithms to help develop autonomous systems that can work collaboratively with other systems and with humans.
Computer Vision (Image Analytics) The process of pulling relevant information from an image or sets of images for advanced classification and analysis.
Algorithmic Game Theory and Computational Social Choice Systems that address the economic and social computing dimensions of AI, such as how systems can handle potentially misaligned incentives, including self-interested human participants or firms and the automated AI-based agents representing them.
Soft Robotics (Robotic Process Automation – RPA) Automation of repetitive tasks and common processes such as IT, customer servicing and sales without the need to transform existing IT system maps.
Algorithms: A set of rules or instructions given to an AI, neural network, or other machines to help it learn on its own; classification, clustering, recommendation, and regression are four of the most popular types.
Artificial neural network (ANN): A learning model created to act like a human brain that solves tasks that are too difficult for traditional computer systems to solve.
Autonomic computing: A system’s capacity for adaptive self-management of its own resources for high-level computing functions without user input.
Chatbots: A chat robot (chatbot for short) that is designed to simulate a conversation with human users by communicating through text chats, voice commands, or both. They are a commonly used interface for computer programs that include AI capabilities.
Classification: Classification algorithms let machines assign a category to a data point based on training data.
Cluster analysis: A type of unsupervised learning used for exploratory data analysis to find hidden patterns or grouping in data; clusters are modeled with a measure of similarity defined by metrics such as Euclidean or probabilistic distance.
Clustering: Clustering algorithms let machines group data points or items into groups with similar characteristics.
Cognitive computing: A computerized model that mimics the way the human brain thinks. It involves self-learning through the use of data mining, natural language processing, and pattern recognition.
Convolutional neural network (CNN): A type of neural networks that identifies and makes sense of images.
Data mining: The examination of data sets to discover and mine patterns from that data that can be of further use.
Data science: An interdisciplinary field that combines scientific methods, systems, and processes from statistics, information science, and computer science to provide insight into phenomenon via either structured or unstructured data.
Decision tree: A tree and branch-based model used to map decisions and their possible consequences, similar to a flow chart.
Fluent: A type of condition that can change over time.
Game AI: A form of AI specific to gaming that uses an algorithm to replace randomness. It is a computational behavior used in non-player characters to generate human-like intelligence and reaction-based actions taken by the player.
Genetic algorithm: An evolutionary algorithm based on principles of genetics and natural selection that is used to find optimal or near-optimal solutions to difficult problems that would otherwise take decades to solve.
Heuristic search techniques: Support that narrows down the search for optimal solutions for a problem by eliminating options that are incorrect.
Knowledge engineering: Focuses on building knowledge-based systems, including all of the scientific, technical, and social aspects of it.
Logic programming: A type of programming paradigm in which computation is carried out based on the knowledge repository of facts and rules; LISP and Prolog are two logic programming languages used for AI programming.
Machine intelligence: An umbrella term that encompasses machine learning, deep learning, and classical learning algorithms.
Machine perception: The ability for a system to receive and interpret data from the outside world similarly to how humans use our senses. This is typically done with attached hardware, though software is also usable.
Recurrent neural network (RNN): A type of neural network that makes sense of sequential information and recognizes patterns, and creates outputs based on those calculations.
Swarm behavior: From the perspective of the mathematical modeler, it is an emergent behavior arising from simple rules that are followed by individuals and does not involve any central coordination.
|Automated communications||Also known as an interactive agent, or artificial conversational entity, these are computer programs which conduct a conversation via auditory or textual methods. For example, chatbots, mailbots.|
|Automated data analyst||AI solutions aimed at performing the job of data analysts and data scientists and bridging the gap between such roles and business imperatives. For example, these might include programs that are able to develop a deep understanding of customer preferences from data, identify high-risk customer groups and tailor interaction touch points in a manner personalised to such customers.|
|Automated operational and efficiency analyst||AI solutions targeted at increasing operational efficiency and reducing costs. These include AI programs and bots aimed at automating repetitive manual tasks such as identifying and correcting data and formatting mistakes, performing back office tasks and automating repetitive interactions with customers.|
|Automated research and information aggregation||Applications of AI that involve aggregating and processing large volumes of information on a topic so as to generate meaningful insights. For example, aggregating information from research papers or medical journals for diagnosis support, identifying online hoax, bad reporting and statistics, and identifying plagiarised publications.|
|Automated sales analyst||AI-powered digital analysts for sales and marketing decisions. These programs are able to test a range of scenarios using internal and external data to predict the impact of marketing strategies such as promotions and campaigns, simulate ‘what if’ scenarios against multiple hypotheses and perform root cause analyses against business results.|
|Business decision makers/influencers||A sub-set of participants in the survey who have identified themselves to be either in a decision making role or an influencing role in their current organisations. Some of the survey questions had been specifically targeted towards this group.|
|Decision support systems||Decision support systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerised information systems that support business and organisational decision-making activities.|
|Machine learning||Machine learning is concerned with computer programs that automatically improve their performance through experience.|
|Predictive analytics||Predictive analytics is an area of statistics that deals with extracting information from data and using it to predict trends and behaviour patterns–for example, sales forecasts, predicting customer churn and industrial|
|Robotics||Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback and information processing. Environmental information such as imagery and sound are captured using a group of sensors and the same are processed using various computerised techniques for the robot to respond.|
|Virtual personal assistants||Virtual assistants use natural language processing (NLP) to match user text or voice input to executable commands. Many continually learn using AI techniques, including machine learning. For example, Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, Google Now.|
|AI advisors||AI advisors are machines or systems that monitor employees’ progress and performance. They are responsible for the growth of the employee in the organisation and for the delivery of projects.|
|AI assistants||AI assistants are machines or systems or application programming interfaces ([APIs] a set of subroutine definitions, protocols and tools for building application software) that perform non-value adding services such as scheduling and email management.|
: pwc AI: https://www.pwc.com/ai
: AI: The Complete Guide: